Subject lines are powerful elements of email campaigns. But that’s not really surprising. Subject lines are basically the headlines of an email message.

Headlines are something writers and editors agonize over, and for good reason. Copywriter coach Chris Marlow writes “tests have proven many times that the headline is responsible for at least 50 percent and as much as 75 percent of an ad’s success.” Some sources report that 35 percent of email subscribers will open an email based on the subject line alone, which almost seems low compared to the headline statistic.

Statistics aside, with so much riding on subject lines, it’s worthwhile review how to improve them. Here are seven ideas, in order of how well they’ve performed previously.

1. Use 6 to 10 Words

2. Personalization Is Worth the Effort

3. Use the Right Words

4. Use Calls-to-action

5. Be Specific

6. Capitalize Each Word

7. Limit Punctuation

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